Male infertility Treatment in India

One of the pitfalls of modern lifestyle has been an increase in stress, and constant exposure to pollution. Sedentary habits and unhealthy eating practices have contributed to the many health problems seen in people today. Infertility in men and women is a rising cause for concern.
Approximately 15% of all couples attempting to have children will be affected by infertility. This is attributable to a male factor alone in 30% of couples and to a combination of male and female factors in an additional 20%. In approximately 50% of all infertile couples, therefore, an abnormal male factor contributes to reproductive failure.To treat these patients successfully, familiarity with the basic evaluation of the infertile male is necessary. Recently, some of the most important advances in the management of male infertility have been in the area of advanced reproductive technologies (ART). This review gives special attention to this topic as well as to the potential genetic implications of applying ART to couples whose infertility problems stem from severe male factor infertility.
Infertility is defined as the inability to achieve pregnancy after one year of unprotected intercourse. An estimated 15% of couples meet this criterion and are considered infertile. Historically, the workup for the infertile couple focused primarily on conditions of the female. However, conditions of the male alone are now estimated to account for nearly 30% of infertile couples, and conditions of both the female and the male account for another 20%. Conditions of the male that affect fertility are still generally under diagnosed and under treated.

Causes of infertility in men

  • Infertility in men is most often caused by:
  • Problems making sperm — producing too few sperm or none at all
  • Problems with the sperm’s ability to reach the egg and fertilize it — abnormal sperm shape or structure prevent it from moving correctly Sometimes a man is born with the problems that affect his sperm. Other times problems start later in life due to illness or injury. For example, cystic fibrosis often causes infertility in men.

Reasons for Male Infertility:

There are a wide number of reasons for male infertility. Some are caused by physical problems that prevent the sperm from being ejaculated normally in semen. Others affect the quality and production of the sperm itself.

Possible problems include:

Sexually transmitted diseases or other infections. Genital infections such as chlamydia and gonorrhea can cause infertility in men. The infertility can often be resolved by treating the infection.
Blockages, birth defects, or physical damage. In some cases, men are born with blockages in parts of the testicle or other abnormalities that prevent sperm from getting into the semen. Physical trauma to the testicles, prostate, and urethra (define) can also result in fertility problems. Surgery can sometimes correct the problem.
Retrograde ejaculation. In this condition, semen doesn’t come out of the penis during ejaculation but instead enters the bladder. It can be caused by diabetes, certain medications, and surgery to the bladder, prostate, or urethra.
Genetic diseases. Although it’s rare, genetic illnesses such as cystic fibrosis or chromosomal disorders can cause infertility.
Autoimmune problems. In some cases, the immune system can mistakenly target sperm cells and treat them as if they were a foreign virus. The sperm can become damaged as a result.
Hormonal problems. Certain hormonal imbalances — in the pituitary and thyroid glands, for instance — can cause infertility. Your doctor may suggest treatment with medication.
Sexual problems. Erectile dysfunction (impotence) and premature ejaculation can obviously have an effect on fertility. Erectile dysfunction can be caused by psychological problems such as anxiety, guilt, or low self-esteem. It is also caused by physical problems such as diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and heart disease. In addition, impotence may be a side effect of certain medications such as antidepressants. Talk to your doctor about ways of treating any sexual problems.
Varicoceles. Varicoceles are enlarged varicose veins that develop in the scrotum and prevent blood from flowing properly. Varicoceles are found in 15% of all men, but in up to 40% of men being evaluated for infertility. Although they may be a factor in male infertility, recent studies question whether surgery to correct varicoceles has any beneficial effect.

Other Factors That May Cause Male Infertility:

Excessive exercise. Studies have shown that exercising too much may lead to the release of too many steroid hormones. This can affect fertility.

Stress.
Obesity.

Use of drugs, alcohol, or tobacco. Smoking tobacco, using drugs such as marijuana and cocaine, and taking steroids can reduce sperm counts.
Exposure to toxins and environmental hazards. Pesticides, lead, radiation, radioactive substances, mercury, and heavy metals may affect fertility.
Heat. Although the effect is usually temporary, high temperatures in the testicles could reduce sperm production. High heat could result from wearing clothing that’s too tight and traps heat, frequent bike riding, or by taking too many hot baths or saunas.

Fertility Tests for Men

Although some people still think of fertility as a “woman’s problem,” up to half of all cases of infertility involve problems with the male partner. Infertility in a man may be the sole reason that a couple can’t conceive, or it may simply add to the difficulties caused by infertility in his partner.So it’s crucial that men get tested for fertility as well as women. It’s also important that men do it early. Though some guys may want to put off being tested out of embarrassment, early testing can spare their partners a great deal of unnecessary discomfort and expense. It’s also a good way to quickly narrow down potential problems.

Getting Tested

The first thing to do is to go to the doctor, typically a urologist. After a physical examination, your doctor will probably order a semen analysis, which will check the quality and quantity of the sperm in the semen. And yes, your doctor will want you to give the sample there, or at least someplace nearby, since it’s important that the analysis take place quickly. Just remember, as sheepish as you might feel, a semen analysis is a commonplace test, and the results could save you months of worry and stress.
If the first semen analysis is normal, your doctor may order a second test to confirm the results. Two normal tests usually means that the man doesn’t have any significant infertility problems. If something in the results looks irregular, your doctor might order further tests to pinpoint the problem. At this point, if you aren’t already seeing a urologist, you should considering seeing a specialist.

There are a number of potential problems that a semen analysis can detect. They include:

Azoospermia. No sperm are produced, or the sperm aren’t appearing in the semen.
Oligiospermia. Few sperm are produced. Problems with sperm motility. If sperm aren’t moving normally, they are less likely to be capable of fertilizing an egg.
Problems with sperm morphology. Problems with the form and structure — or morphology — of the sperm may cause infertility. But while these conditions may be the direct reason that you can’t conceive, they themselves may be caused by an underlying medical condition. Your doctor will probably want to investigate the issue further by ordering blood and urine tests or other procedures.